The NHS is the largest single organisation in the United Kingdom. Its potential impact on our lives is huge, as an employer, purchaser, cause of travel, producer of waste, consumer of energy, and commissioner of building works. This publication shows how the NHS could use its resources more wisely to sustain health in the long term. It argues that the NHS can, and must, make better use of its resources to reduce inequalities, build stronger local economies and safeguard the environment for the benefit of whole communities. To do this, it will need to tackle the challenge of raising service standards and changing attitudes and patterns of behaviour in all of its corporate activities.